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10 Basic Command Linux Users Should Know

Folder / file open-close-delete-create operations using Windows can be done with terminal commands in Linux. As commands and shortcuts are learned and practiced, mastery will increase. This article describes the basic commands that should be known.



This is the command that uses the first and third letters of List. It allows you to see the folders and files in the directory you are in Linux in list format. One of the commands you will use most.

You must type in the terminal


If used alone, it lists the files and folders in your current directory.

İf ;

ls /kitaplar

If you type, the ones in the “books” folder are listed.

Next to this command, you can get different types of listings with combinations according to your needs.

To list hidden files;

ls -a



This is the command used to switch folders. If you type only the name of the folder you want to switch to, it will not work. It is also important that you correctly define the folder address. If you switch to a folder within another folder. You must use the “/” slash (slash).

Command usage;

cd Desktop/resimler

If this command is written in the terminal, you will switch to the “pictures” folder in “Desktop”.

To move from the current folder to a parent folder;

cd ..

To return directly to the root directory from your current folder;


just type ..



A command used to move a file to a location other than its current location.

E.g; Suppose we have a file named linksler.txt on the desktop. Let’s move this file back to the folder named “My Plan” on the Desktop.

Our command;

mv /Desktop/linkler.txt Desktop/planım

Specifies the destination location of the file to be moved, as the normal font type specifies the position to be moved.


With this command, you can create folders on Linux.

What you need to do;

mkdır videolar

to write the folder name with the command.


This is the command that allows you to delete any folder. If you want to delete files, a different command will do the trick. The command to delete a folder containing your documents;

rmdir belgeler

NOTE: You cannot delete a folder that contains files with this command.


A file or folder is a command that you can delete regardless.

You only need to type the file type to delete it;…

rm linkler.txt

To delete the folder / file together;

rm -r belgeler


You can use this command to create document files. It is very simple to use.

What you need to do;

touch dokumanım


You created a file on Linux, but you can’t remember which directory it is in. This is exactly what this command will do.

What you need to do;

locate linkler

If you type it, it will show you where the “linkler” file is located.


With this command you can see all the commands you have used before.

Just type it in the terminal;


Keyboard shortcuts

In the Linux terminal, your keyboard control is important in order to do your job in the most practical and less time.

These shortcuts are very useful;





Ctrl + A > The cursor moves to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl + E > The cursor moves to the end of the line.
Ctrl + K > Breaks the text to the end of the line.
Ctrl + Y > Pastes the text.
Ctrl + D > Closes the session.
Ctrl + U > Completely deletes previous posts.

Extra Command:

Extra Command:
If the keyboard layout is US (English), it is possible to switch it to TR (Turkish) keyboard in a practical way.

setxkbmap tr

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